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In 353, the celebrated calligrapher Wang Xizhi invited 41 scholar-poets to the Orchid Pavilion (Lanting) for the annual Spring Purification Festival. Guests sat along a meandering stream while servants floated cups of wine downstream. Any poet who failed to compose a poem by the time his cup reached him was made to drink a "penalty cup," leading before long to a creative state of inebriation. Wang collected the poems and then wrote his famous Preface to the Orchid Pavilion Compilation. Immortalized in Chinese painting as a paragon of refined scholarly pleasure, the Lanting gathering was adopted as a subject and revered especially by Japanese painters of the Nanga School.
Purchased by the Indianapolis Museum of Art in 2000.